Baseball is a batting and ball sport played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and playing. The game is live when the referee sends a signal to the thrower, either verbally or signaling, indicating that the ball is in play. A player on the field team, called the pitcher, throws a ball that a player from the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The goal of the offensive team (batting team) is to throw the ball onto the field of play, away from the other team's players, allowing their players to run the bases and make them advance counterclockwise around four bases to score what is called runs.
The goal of the defensive team (called a field team) is to prevent batters from becoming runners and to prevent runners from moving up the bases. A race is scored when a runner legally moves through the bases in order and touches home plate (the place where the player started as a hitter). Our editors will review what you have submitted and determine if they should review the article. Baseball, a game played with a bat, a ball and gloves between two teams of nine players each on a field with four white bases arranged in the shape of a diamond (i.e.
Teams alternate positions as batters (attack) and field players (defense) and swap places when three members of the batting team are “eliminated”. As batters, players try to hit the ball out of reach of the field team and make a complete circuit around the bases to “run”. The team that scores the most runs in nine innings (times at bat) wins the game. Baseball also reformed the nation's calendar.
With the rise of industrialization, the standardized clock in the office or factory deprived people of the previous experience of time, in its rich association with the hours of the day, the natural rhythms of the seasons and the traditional church calendar. However, for the Americans, the opening of the baseball training season marked the arrival of spring, playing in the regular season meant summer, and the World Series marked the arrival of fall. In winter, baseball fans would participate in “popular leagues”, recalling games and big games from the past and speculating on what the next season would hold for them. While baseball possessed enormous integrative powers, the history of the game has also been interwoven and reflected important social and cultural divisions.
Until the first decades of the 20th century, middle-class evangelical Protestants viewed sports with deep suspicion. They associated baseball, or at least the professional version of the game, with those who never do well, immigrants, the working class, drinking, gambling and the general uproar. On the contrary, these same qualities served as the basis for the rise of ethnic groups in the country's ghettos. In the 19th century, Irish and German Americans excelled both in baseball (as well as in other commercial entertainment venues) and in more “respectable” occupations, and some observers wondered if they had a special capacity to play the game.
However, although it failed to resolve conflicts stemming from fundamental social divisions, baseball showed an extraordinary capacity to foster ties. In the 1850s, young artisans and employees, who often traveled to the city and whose lifestyles changed rapidly in the midst of the Industrial Revolution, conceived of themselves as members of what was known as the “baseball fraternity”. Like the volunteer fire departments and militia units of the time, they put on special uniforms, developed their own rituals and, when playing baseball, shared powerful common experiences. Playing and watching baseball contests also strengthened occupational, ethnic, and racial identities.
Butchers, printers, cartoonists, masons, and even clergymen organized baseball clubs. So did Irish Americans, German Americans, and African-Americans. Baseball parks became important local civic monuments and repositories of collective memories. The first parks had been flimsy wooden structures built in jerseys, but between 1909 and 1923 some 15 major league clubs built new, more permanent steel and concrete parks.
These buildings were similar to the great public buildings, skyscrapers and railway terminals of the time; local residents proudly pointed to them as proof of their city's size and achievements. Considering them shelters from the noise, dirt and misery of the industrial city, the owners gave the first parks the pastoral names of Ebbets Field, Sportsman's Park and Polo Grounds, but, with the construction of symmetric multi-sport facilities in the 1960s and 1970s, urban and futuristic names such as Astrodome and Kingdome predominated. In a new era of park construction in the 1990s, designers tried to recover the atmosphere of previous times by designing “retro parks”, a term that was a kind of oxymoron, since, although the new parks offered fans the intimacy of old parks, at the same time they provided modern amenities, such as escalators, air-conditioned living rooms, high-tech audiovisual systems, areas of Disney-style children's games and space for numerous retail outlets. The increasing corporate influence in the game was reflected in the names of the parks, such as Network Associates Stadium and Bank One Ballpark.
Around the middle of the 20th century, baseball's claim to be the sport of the United States was based on more precarious grounds than in the past. The sport faced stiff competition, not only from other professional sports (especially field soccer), but even more so from a massive conversion of Americans from public distractions to private distractions and at home. Attendance as a percentage of the population declined at all levels of baseball, the minor leagues became a shell of what they were before, and hundreds of semi-professional and amateur teams withdrew. In the 1990s, player strikes, free agency, disparities in competition, and the rising cost of attending games added to major league baseball's problems.
However, baseball continued to show remarkable resilience; attendance at professional games improved and attendance at minor league games was close to World War II records at the turn of the century. At the beginning of the 21st century, baseball continued to face serious problems, but the sport was gaining popularity around the world and it could still be firmly argued that baseball held a special place in the hearts and minds of the American people. A match is played between two teams, each consisting of 9 players. The game lasts 9 innings and each team alternates between batting and field in each inning.
The scores at the end of the entries are added to a cumulative score and the team with the most points wins. Each team has three outs per inning before changing roles. Each inning can be divided into the top (where the visiting team bats) and the bottom (where the home team bats). Baseball is a game in which a player hits a ball with a bat and runs across the field, stepping on three bases before returning to where he started.
Most baseball games last seven innings. An inning has an upper and lower half, where teams switch back and forth between playing defense (field) and offense (batting). Local teams bat at the bottom of each inning, while visiting or visiting teams bat at the top. This is considered an advantage for the home team, since they receive the last set of at-bats in a baseball game.
In Major League Baseball, games last nine innings. The team with the most runs at the end of the ninth inning is the winner. If the score is tied, additional entries called “extra entries” can be played. .